Modelling and simulations are important tools in the design, analysis and optimization of solar cells and photovoltaic modules. Central to modelling is the development of models that physically and accurately describe operation of the analysed structures. Developed models are implemented in numerical simulators (computer code). With input parameters that realistically describe material properties of the structure, numerical simulations are carried out.

Simulation can be used to get a wide range of results from the characteristics of solar cells and photovoltaic modules to internal parameters of the device, which often cannot be accessed experimentally.

Based on physical background we can separate device modelling and simulations into two groups: